Risk factors and causes of ADHD
ADHD is currently considered a disorder with multiple causes.
Considerable research supports a strong genetic component. For example, first degree relatives (parents, siblings and children) of people with ADHD have a 3 to 5 times increased risk. To explain these findings, researchers used to think that ADHD was caused by one specific gene. However, studies have found no evidence for this theory. Instead, there are several genes that might be linked to ADHD. Each of these genes only slightly increases the relative risk of ADHD.
Studies have also identified environmental factors linked to ADHD. Potentially important environmental factors include low birth weight, prenatal and perinatal obstetric complications, intrauterine toxins such as nicotin or alcohol, severe early deprivation, institutional rearing, …
Even though the exact etiology of ADHD is unknown, there are many consistent findings which provide empirical evidence for the biological basis of ADHD. Brain imaging studies have identified various structural and functional abnormalities in different brain regions, including the prefrontal cortex. This brain area is believed to control executive functions, which are specific cognitive abilities that control and regulate behavior. These include initiating and inhibiting an action, planning, organizing,… Other brain regions that are involved are those responsible for the processing of rewards. On a molecular level, these difficulties might be mediated by an imbalance of neurotransmitters. These are chemicals that allow communication between different nerve cells. Neurotransmitters involved in ADHD include dopamine and noradrenalin.
The fifth ADDUCE Newsletter is now available!
Here, you can read about the finalisation of the project,
the European Medicines Agency and General Assembly meetings
and the dissemination of the results!
The fourth ADDUCE Newsletter is available!
In this newsletter, you can find some information on the final recruitment status of the 2 main studies:
- the prospective open-label methylphenidate pharmacovigilance study
- the long-term cardiascular effects of methylphenidate use
Also, you can read about the future plans of the project!
More than 1500 children, adolescents and adults across all Europe already took part in our study! Thanks to them, we have already gathered lots of information so we can know a lot more about methylphenidate than ever before!
Did you participate in the ADDUCE studies and are you curious about the latest news on the project?
Here you can find some information!
News for children, April 2015
News for adolescents, April 2015
News for parents, April 2015
The third ADDUCE Newsletter is available!
- the prospective open-label methylphenidate pharmacovigilance study: recruitment status and spin-
- the long-term cardiovascular effects of methylphenidate use: study design and participation
and much more in the ADDUCE Newsletter 3, March 2015
WP3: prospective open-label methylphenidate
- WP8: long-term cardiovascular effects of methylphenidate use
and much more in the ADDUCE Newsletter 2, February 2013
16 - 19 OCTOBER 2016:
4rd EUNETHYDIS International Conference on ADHD, Berlin - Germany
from basis neuroscience to optimised clinical care
17 & 18 APRIL 2016:
ADDUCE Consortium meeting, London - UK
28 - 31 MAY 2015:
5th World Congress on ADHD: from Child to Adult Disorder, Glasgow - Scotland
20 & 21 APRIL 2015:
ADDUCE Consortium meeting, Salina - Italy
21 - 24 MAY 2014:
3rd EUNETHYDIS International Conference on ADHD, Istanbul - Turkey
ADHD and related disorders
19 & 20 MAY 2014:
ADDUCE Consortium meeting, Istanbul - Turkey
3 - 6 OCTOBER 2013:
23rd EUNETHYDIS Network Meeting, Prague Czech Republic
A meeting of the European Network of Hyperkinetic Disorders
6 - 9 JUNE 2013:
4th World Congress on ADHD: from Childhood to Adult Disease, Milan - Italy
4 & 5 JUNE 2013:
ADDUCE Consortium meeting, Milan - Italy
6 & 7 JUNE 2012:
ADDUCE Consortium meeting, Cagliari - Italy
23 MAY 2012:
2nd EUNETHYDIS International Conference on ADHD, Barcelona - Spain